International Customs Law
In each and every coming year, some provision on extradition of trade in drugs, pirated items and similar things are executed. Some of those conventions are formed new and others are modified from the existing conventions. The provisions on extradition of 1961 and that of 1971 aim at the same prospect but critically analyzing the two sets of conventions it can be inferred that there are numerous differences between the two (Khan, 1979). Comparison of the conventions of 1961 and 1971 along with the analysis of effectiveness of 1988 provisions is done over here.
The 1961 Convention comprise of a number of regulations for extradition. The first one in that list is the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. This convention was made in 1961 but later it was amended in the year of 1972. The specialty of this convention is that it replaced all the related conventions and thus the name “Single Convention” come into existence. This law did was formulated to benefit the entire human race without affecting the world of business. This statement is supported by the fact that the convention minimized the abusive effect of narcotic drugs but simultaneously allowed legitimate trade on this business as a part of it this business seems to be important and thus it is safeguarded by this convention (L and E, 1962). Prohibition of production and use of drugs for all purposes will result to adverse outcomes. Thus, this convention specifically allowed the production, use, export and import of the drugs that are required in medical ground and for the need of researches; but in contrast, the convention prohibited the production, use and trade of all other drugs. In addition to the mentioned regulations, it has also formulated many other articles which have put the limitation depending upon the parameters of time, amount of production and materials (Stewart, 1989).
This convention came into existence after 10 years since the last mentioned one. The prime focus of this convention was on Psychotropic substances. The details of the conventions infer that the availability of illicit amphetamines and hallucinogenic drugs all over the world must be carried out under control without prohibiting them completely. One article under this convention aims at formulating measures to be implemented against illicit traffic (Khan, 1979). There are numerous other approaches of this convention that focuses on offences, jurisdictions and prohibition of illegitimate application and productions.
The 1961 Convention and the 1971 Convention fall into the same category of conventions as their basic aim is the same. It is to formulate regulations against illegitimate use and production of drugs and pirated items. Apart from the similarity in basic motive of the conventions of 1061 and 1972, they are similar in numerous other aspects. The prime similarity is that both the conventions do not completely prohibit usage and production of drugs but allow a certain percentage for the benefit of mankind as well as aspects related to human life (Stewart, 1989). The 1961 convention states that drugs that are required for medical applications and research grounds must be allowed to produce, export and import. Similarly, the 1971 convention clearly mentioned control of illegitimate drugs must be taken place rather from prohibiting completely. The difference between the two conventions is that the 1961 convention has replaced all the previous regulation related to similar intentions and acts as an integrated regulation, but the 1971 convention has no such specialty (L and E, 1962). Moreover, 1961 convention is wider in its application and description of regulation than that of 1971.
This conventions is similar to the convention of 1961 and 1971 in their basic prospect but is considered to be much more effective. It has been observed that presenting and formulating basic regulation do not seem to be effective which has been done in the previously mentioned conventions. But this convention has not only formulated laws, in addition it has prescribed the outcomes if the regulations are broken (Khan, 1979). This enhances the concern among mankind to maintain the norms of the convention and thus it has been proved to be much more effective. According to this convention, the parties will be established as criminal offenders for importing or exporting illicit drugs. It also involved parties to form sanction for deriving the gravity of offences. The convention also presents legal assistance in prosecution of offenders.
All in all, it can be stated that the 1988 Convention is much wider in range of application and thus is effective that other conventions, though all the conventions are similar in their ultimate prospects.
Khan, I. 1979. Convention on psychotropic substances, 1971: the role and responsibilities of the World Health Organization. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology, 3 (1), pp. 11–14.
L and E, A. 1962. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. International Organization, 16 (04), pp. 776–797.
Stewart, D. 1989. Internationalizing the war on drugs: the UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y, 18 p. 387.